A full report on the final results of FLEAT can be found here .


The easiest way to reduce CO2 emissions of a passenger car fleet is to adapt the car policy. The newly purchased vehicles in the FLEAT pilot actions had a 10,5% lower fuel consumption than the “older” vehicles of the fleet.

The next best option is to implement ecodriving schemes for all drivers in a fleet. The cost of this measure is between 300 € and 1.000 € per driver. This includes the trainer and loss of man hours, and is independent from the type of vehicle. The possible profits are higher for busses and trucks because of the higher yearly mileage.

For light duty vehicles, switching from diesel to CNG powered cars proved to be a viable option. The extra cost of a CNG vehicle compared to the diesel version is +/-1.200€. This is compensated by a substantial lower fuel cost per kilometer driven. Payback time for the CNG-vehicle investment is about 2,1 years.

Swithcing from diesel to CNG for heavy duty vehicles requires a longer payback time (6,3 years). CNG-busses emit 3,4% less CO2 than their diesel equivalents in a well-to-wheel analysis.

Other FLEAT pilot actions on clean vehicle technoilogy included energy consumption monitoring for electric vehicles (35,9 kWh/100km à 79,2 g/km CO2), fuel consumption monitoring of hybrid electric vehicles (123-145 g/km CO2), lightweight buses (savings of 178g/km CO2), eco-chiptuning (savingzs of 35g/km CO2 for heavy duty vehicles) and systems for optimization of fuel injection (no difference). Because of the limited number of vehicles involved, no further conclusions are given on these results.

The last type of pilot cases included actions on mobility management. These actions included different types of measures. The effect of these measures was hard to assess, and the fact that they were all different made it very difficult to compare them to one another. From the pilot case results it was clear that mobility management measures can gain some positive effects on CO2-emissions with public and private fleets. Escpecially in those schemes where an intelligent system of avoiding trips or more efficient routing was used, impressive fuel savings could be made.

It is important to mention that not only CO2-reduction is accomplished but that also a significant cost reduction is shown in the pilot actions. This is an important driver and motivator for companies to implement these measures.


Type of vehicles

Nr of vehicles

Fuel Reduction

Yearly fuel saving/driver

CO2 reduction/year

Payback Time

Light Duty



+/-200 €

-274 tons

1,6-5,2 years




+/- 2.700 €

-1.923 tons

1,3-4,4 months




+/- 2.150 €

-1.680 tons

1,7-5,6 months

Tips and Tricks

  • Highly qualified trainers who support the idea are a crucial factor;
  • The managers should participate in the training courses to increase the employees´ motivation;
  • For the best possible effect the training course should take one full day. Ecodriving cannot be learned properly in one hour;
  • Eco-driving trainings should not be combined with driving safety trainings because the drivers would not focus on the rather dry eco-driving lessons but on the more attractive skidding trials and other practical trainings;
  • After the training courses the organisation should continue their ecodriving activities, e.g. newsletters, ecodriving-tips or ecodriving-competitions;
  • It is very important to monitor the effects in order to demonstrate that the money was well spent;
  • Incentives for employees (allowances or non-cash benefits) are important so that they receive at least a symbolic share in the cost savings;
  • Newly purchased vehicles should be equipped with fuel economy devices.

Clean Vehicles

Type of Action

Nr of vehicles

Fuel Cost Savings

Yearly fuel savings/vehicle

CO2 reduction/year

Payback Time

Car Policy passenger cars



+/- 300 €

-287 tons

0 years

Light Duty CNG



+/- 580 €

-30 tons

2,1 years

Heavy Duty CNG



+/- 4745 €

-17 tons

6,3 years

Tips and Tricks

  • First, make an inventory of different vehicle technologies available in your country (offered by trustworthy manufacturers);
  • For vehicles driving on alternative fuels (e.g. biofuels or CNG), make sure the fuel is (widely) available in your country;
  • For vehicles with alternative drivetrains, make sure the necessary side-equipment is available in your country (e.g. public or private quick fill stations for electrical vehicles);
  • Make sure the alternative vehicle technology is suited for the needs of the vehicle (e.g. range, speed, filling time, …);
  • Proven alternative vehicle technologies:LPG-vehicles, CNG-vehicles (natural gas or bio-methane), biofuel vehicles, electrical vehicles, hybrid vehicles
  • Vehicle technology available on ‘regular’ vehicles to reduce environmental impact:particulate filter for diesel vehicles, direct injection (2nd generation) for gasoline vehicles, energy efficient tyres, Gear Shift Indicator (GSI) (stimulates ecodriving) which is offered by a few manufacturers, Start-Stop (engine is turned of when stopped à no idling) is offered by a few manufacturers,  adaptations to improve aerodynamics;
  • Some (or all) of these technologies are combined in certain ‘green’ models from manufacturers: Volkswagen Blue Motion, BMW Efficient Dynamics, Ford Econetic,…
  • ‘Regular’ heavy duty vehicles: the higher the Euro-standard, the more environmentally friendly the vehicle (it’s very hard to get data regarding fuel efficiency of heavy duty vehicles);
  • Alternative heavy duty vehicles: vehicles running on CNG and biofuels (modified diesel engines);
  • Overviews available at: www.procura-fleets.eu (CNG-vehicles) – www.best-europe.org (bio-ethanol vehicles)www.avere.org (electrical and hybrid vehicles).

Mobility Management

Tips and Tricks

  • A good moment to establish mobility management within an organisation is in context with a mile-stone development (e.g. relocation, merger…);
  • Major road works and road closures can be ideal to create opportunities to try alternative modes of transport. The alternatives provided need to be offered at high quality and as easy as possible to use;
  • Knowledge is power. A mobility scan is the basis for every mobility management process. Scan mobility patterns, context conditions, strengths and weaknesses of the surroundings, needs and wishes of staff and/or visitors;
  • Quantitative data about the status quo make it easier to assess possible effects in the following;
  • Define goals before taking up any measures. Goals should be SMARTER (specific, measurable, acceptable/achievable, realistic, time-bound, evaluated,reviewed/ rewarded).
  • Activities can be divided into two categories: Firstly those that reduce the need to travel at all (such as teleconferencing instead of business trips); and secondly those that try to reduce the use of cars. The latter category can be further divided into those measures that provide incentives to use alternatives to cars, and those that act as a disincentive to the use of cars;     
  • Senior level support for the concept of managing travel demand is crucial. Without this support some initiatives might be feasible, but mobility management will not have a long term impact within an organisation. A project ‘champion’ (travel manager), who oversees the whole process, can be valuable;
  • Define the roles and responsibilities of the staff, senior management, and other participants such as a public transport companies, local authorities, etc. Make an agreement on who is to be involved on a daily, regular or only need to know basis. A steering group can be a helpful structure in order to achieve the goals;        
  • Communication is essential. Make an inventory of best possible information channels for different target groups. One-way information works in some cases, but it is recommended to be as open as possible in order to get all stakeholders involved;
  • When taking up measures the same criteria as for defining goals can be used. It’s important that the effects can be measured;
  • Generally rewards work better than punishment. If all soft measures are failing, use a hard measure to support the soft measures (e.g. car share schemes supported by a paid parking system);
  • It is important to be flexible in your choice of mobility management measures for a site and to look out for changes of circumstances, so that the range of measures can be altered as well;
  • Communicate on results and reward those who achieve them.

[1]  Cost of Diesel: 1.2€/L | Cost of CNG: 0,7€/kg

[2]  Cost of Diesel: 1.2€/L | Cost of CNG: 0,7€/kg















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